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29 mars 2012 4 29 /03 /mars /2012 20:31

In most countries of Southeast Asia, the decolonization have been peaceful. In 1946, the first independence was declared. Between 1946 and 1963, Burma, Vietnam, Indonesia, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, British Borneo, have obtained their independence. Six big powers dominated the region : the Great-Britain, the France, the Siam (in fact, Thailand), the United-States, the Japan and the Netherlands.


For the Philippines (1945) : In 1945, the independence is declared, but not officially. Osmena seize power, but Roxas, leader of Liberal Party, become the president of the Philippines. He was supporting by the United-States. Indeed, Roxas has made possible the creation of two americans bases. For the United-States, it was an excellent independence because they control the economy of the Philippines and they preserve their military presence.


The Indonesia (1950) : after the World War Two, the Central Administration of the Indonesia was functional. In 1950, the Indonesia have obtained the independence. At that time, in 1965, for the Indonesian army was important of killed the landless and communists. Of course, the United-States was allied of the Indonesia.


Concerning the Vietnam War (1964-1975) : after the war against the France, terminated in 1954, the Vietnam is not unify. In the North, the communists. Hô Chi Min was allied of the China. In the South, the rest of the population. Only, the intervention of the North in the problems of the South is annoying for president Truman. Between 1964 and 1975, the war have been terrible. The carpets bombing have been more important than during the World War Two, particularly difficult in the Cambodia and the Laos. The victims of the war are about 5 millions persons. The consequences are very important for the Laos, for example, because there is still some mines. The alloy of bombs is use for make of plates or of spoon. This spoon is an example.


In conclusion, the place of United States have been very important in the decolonization of Southeast Asia, but not without violences.

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7 décembre 2011 3 07 /12 /décembre /2011 00:58

The British Empire have been the most powerful of history. In the seventeenth century, the control of sea by England was far from be total. They Tudors wanted to protect oneself of conflicts with Spanish and Dutsh. In the eighteenth century, the Great-Britain dominated they sea. Today, British have an relation with the colonial past as ambiguous as French. Since an about twenty, we assist at an return at “british world”. British imperialism was well-founded on the classical education of the élite. The apparition of arguments of Spencer lead to one hierarchy of races. It's the theory of the “manifest destiny”. This ideology spread by the popular press. They economics intesrests of the Empire was also a fondation of the british imperialism even though the economic argument have not been as important as that. Between eighteen forty and nineteen or one, the area of Empire was of seven million square kilometre. In nineteen thirty-one, the Westminster Statute organize the Empire. It organized the new Commonwealth. This new organisation proceed from true community sensation. India not obtain the statute of nation. The country rest exclude of new system.


After 1945, the British empire collapse. It be out of financial means for to remain in the dominions. Between 1945 and 1965, the population of British Empire pass of seven hundred millions people at five million people with three millions in Hong Kong. Honk Kong have been restored in Chinese in 1997. In 1947, Israël was created by the partition of Palestine under control of British Empire. Moreover, in 1947, the Indian independence Bill was voted by british parliament. Gandhi (1869-1948), after have been London study, he return, in 1915, in India. He have organized the pacific resistance at British. Finaly, Indian and Pakistan have been created. Bangladesh was created after the civil war with Pakistan. In 1948, Ceylan obtained independence. For Great-Britain it's model of decolonization because the nationalist was accomodating. It have been enougth facil of to come to an agreement.


In the fifties, the decolonization become more important. Indeed, in 1956 it's independence of Sudan.

However, the Suez Crisis with Egypt force Great-Britain to deploy this troops in Oman (1957), in Jordan (1958) and in Kuwait (1961). The Great-Britain maintained a presence in the Middle East for another decade. Aden obtain this independence in 1967 and Bahreïn in 1971. So, in Africa, in 1957, was declared the independence of Ghana, in 1960 it was Nigerian, in 1961 for South Africa, in 1965, Rhodesia obtained this independence by the Unilateral Declaration of independence. After the departure of British in 1961 and 1962 of Jamaica and Trinidad the West Indies Federation obtained the independence.


In conclusion, today, the decolonization is not terminated because migrations are the reflection of colonial past. This period is name post-colonial period. The Queen of United Kingdom is always chief of state of Canada, Australia and the other states of Commonwealth. This states are run by an General governor, sort of president of republic. The researchers consider the capitalist system to be an form of new colonialism because the persons exploit or evict from land by they firm of food processing industry. However, it's my opinion. My expose is finish.



Licence 3, 2011-2012

Université du Havre

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  • : La Crise des Consciences
  • : Ce blog a été créé par un étudiant en histoire et sociologie de l'Université du Havre. Il propose des articles allant du travail universitaire (exposé, compte-rendu...) à l'analyse spontanée de l'actualité... Il est donc à la fois objectif et subjectif, partial et impartial, méritant la plus grande prudence concernant les analyses de l'actualité notamment car elles sont parfois politiquement orientées.
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